You can take an electromagnet as an electric magnet or a man-made magnet that does not occurs naturally but is made by supplying power to the wire building up the magnetic field around it such that it behaves like a magnet. Just like a normal magnet has got a magnetic field, electromagnets also have got a sort of magnetic field that gets build up when electricity is passed through them and this is why they are named as electromagnets or electrical magnets.
What is an Electromagnet
Difference between a normal magnet and electromagnet:-
A normal magnet is generally a black coloured stone like structure that has got two poles i.e. North pole and South pole. These poles determine if it will repel the other magnets and magnetic substances or will attract them. A normal magnet is a permanent magnet this way while an electromagnet is a temporary magnet that behaves like a magnet till electric current is flowing through it and becomes nothing but a simple piece of wire when current is switched off.
The definition of an electromagnet:-
If you ask me to define an electromagnet, I will rather say that it is just an electric magnet in which we produce the magnetic field by applying the electric current. This magnetic field gets developed when we switch on the current and gets vanished when the current is switched off.
Structure of an electromagnet:-
An electromagnet is composed of copper wire that is partially insulated and wrapped on an iron rod. This wrapping of copper wire on iron rod is made by looping the copper wire on it and this loop is called a solenoid. The loop when connected with the battery behaves like a magnet and the intensity of its magnetic power depends on the amount of current as well as the number of copper wire loops.
Working of An Electromagnet:-
Telling you exactly, the moment when battery or electric power is connected to this copper wire loop, an electromagnetic field gets developed that keeps on increasing with the amount of current as well as the number of copper turns. Now any metal that is sensitive to magnets like iron, etc. if coming in this magnetic field will get attracted and thus the job of electromagnet gets fulfilled.
Applications of An Electromagnet:-
Electromagnets are used in various fields like pulling up cars by attracting them by the means of an electromagnet with higher power or to make motors, generators, relays, loud speakers, watches, scientific instruments, etc. Approximately all the industries that deal in electronic products make use of electromagnets so as to make their products including electric bells, transformers and other such items.
Rules associated with electromagnets:-
There are various rules associated with these electromagnets that deal with the direction of current, force, etc. and one of these is Fleming’s Left hand rule and Right hand rule that tell you the direction of current by simply working it upon two of your fingers and a thumb making you able to determine if it will be clockwise or anti clockwise.