Mesothelioma is the type of lung cancer that can be diagnosed on the basis of a chest x-ray and ct scan result, but must be confirmed either by examining it with serious effusion cytology or with a biopsy. Thoracoscopy can be used to acquire biopsy material, and allows to introduce the substances such as talc to obliterate the pleural space, and prevents more fluid from gathering and pressing on the lung. Despite treatment with chemotherapy, radiation therapy or sometimes surgery, mesothelioma carries a poor prognosis. Moreover, the research about screening tests for the early detection of mesothelioma is still ongoing.
Screening And Diagnosis of Mesothelioma
Imaging & biopsy:-
diagnosing mesothelioma is often difficult, because the symptoms are similar to enumerous other conditions. The diagnosis of this cancer begins with a review of the patient’s medical history. A history of exposure to asbestos may increase clinical suspicion for this type of cancer.
Generally, a biopsy is needed to confirm about the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma. The doctor takes out a sample of tissue to examine it under a microscope by a pathologist. A biopsy may be done in different ways, depending on where the abnormal area is located. If the cancer is in the chest, the doctor may perform a thoracoscopy.
Immuno his to chemistry & staging:-
immuno his to chemical studies play an important role in differentiating malignant mesothelioma from neoplastic mimics. There are numerous tests and panels available to do it.
No single test is perfect for distinguishing mesothelioma from carcinoma or even benign versus malignant. Currently, there is no fda approved immuno his to chemistry assay for the diagnosis of mesothelioma so different cancer centers use different panels.
Staging of mesothelioma is based on the international mesothelioma interest group recommendations. Tnm classification of the primary tumor, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis is performed. Mesothelioma is staged one – a – to four based on the tnm status.
Screening of mesothelioma:-
Doctors have begun testing the mesomark assay which measures levels of soluble mesothelin-related proteins released by diseased mesothelioma cells.