Bone marrow transplantation is a procedure in which diseased/damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced by pluripotent stem cells that develops into healthy stem cells.
Bone Marrow – What Is Bone Marrow Transplantation
Bone marrow is a soft fatty tissue present inside our bones. It is also known as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or stem cell transplantation. Stem cells produce more than 20 billion new blood cells everyday throughout a person’s life. Stem cells produces three types of blood cells i.E. Red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets, the red blood cells are essential for transportation of gases inside body which is facilitates by the presence of a protein hemoglobin inside RBCS.
The white blood cells fight against infection or any disease causing agent. They make immune system and provide immunity to us. Platelets are essential for blood clotting during any injury. The technique of bone marrow transplantation is used to replace damaged cells due to chemotherapy, radiations, cancer like leukemia or lymphoma and due to diseases like plastic anemia, sickle cell anemia etc.
Types of bone marrow transplantation:-
in autologous/rescue transplantation the healthy stem cells are taken from the patient and store in frozen conditions, then after chemotherapy damaged cells are replaced by healthy stem cells.
in this healthy stem cells are taken from a healthy person and are transferred the patient with damaged stem cells.
Umbilical cord blood transplantation:-
stem cells are taken from the embryo and are store by cryopreservation. These cells are immature. So bone marrow of embryo can be complement with bone marrow of patient i.E. Lesser chances for mismatching of stem cells but blood count is low.
Sometime the post effect of bone marrow transplantation may include side effects like fever, headache, nausea etc. Stem cells are called pluripotent cells as these are capable of self-renewal and are unspecialized cells that can potentially reproduce themselves and generate more specialized cells indefinitely. During transplantation pluripotent hematopoietic stem cell divide to form myeloid or lymphoid stem cell. Depending on types of amount of cytokines present myeloid or lymphoid cells generate different types of cells.
Different types of cytokines involved in transplantation are gm – granulocyte macrophage, eo – eosinophil, e – erythrocyte, mega – megakaryocyte, t – t-cell, b – b-cell, csf – colony stimulating factor, il – interleukin etc. Special signals are required for creating and maintaining stem cells population. Blood is continuously replenished tissue whose stem cells are located in bone marrow. Various types of blood cells are derivesfrom single type of pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells. In plants stem cells are located in meristem tissue at apical positions of root and shoot, at intercalary positions and also present laterally.